The occurrence of abnormal vein extension in the lower extremity, either of greater or smaller size, also involves an alteration of aesthetics, reflecting that there may be some internal process which results in increased risk of more or less important problems (depending on the affected vessel): from the appearance of spots on the skin, including skin ulcers, until complications such as phlebitis, thrombosis, etc.
Genetic and constitutional factors, a physiological involutive process, and the occurrence of certain conditions or diseases (pregnancy, smoking, occupational standing, intake of oral contraceptives, etc.) can cause the enlargement of any vein, but mainly the ones of the lower extremities (for gravity factor that affects the standing of humans).
Vascular sclerosis is the selected method for a cosmetic treatment of small varicose veins in the lower extremities, either performed with a physical or chemical method, or in combination (it only improves the aesthetics of the leg, but does not solve the fundamental vascular problem). If the varicose veins are very thick or major venous trunks or perforating veins are involved (communication between deep and superficial venous systems), although not uncommon, it could be necessary to have a previous surgical phlebectomy treatment.
The pretreatment examination of any type of varicose veins could show a significant venous insufficiency or vascular disease, which could therefore require prior involvement of a phlebologist or vascular surgeon. Without this the treatment would result futile.
Accordingly it is important to highlight, that even in the presence of incipient or small signs of venous insufficiency, it would be appropriate to prescribe a set of hygiene and dietetic measures (exercise, type of footwear, postural hygiene, etc.) and/or pharmacological with a preventive character, these being essential to try to prevent the problem from progressing.
Its major contraindications are: heart disease; liver; nephropathies; uncontrolled hypertension, diabetes, thrombophlebitis and/or previous emboli, coagulopathies and confirmed pregnancy (possible or desired); lactation.
In all cases the vascular sclerosis consists of provoking a controlled inflammatory reaction in the walls of the dilated vein, which will determine its obliteration. This vessel, as no blood runs through its interior in the meantime, will become fibrous and produce a secondary healing process, which involves the disappearance of the vein as such within about a month. The venous system supports this disappearance of some of its most superficial paths, as deep vessels are not reached.
• Chemical sclerosis: injecting a sclerosant drug with characteristics or properties which cause the above mentioned reaction. There are many types of chemical sclerosants. The one used will be ETOXIESCLEROL, with a concentration ranging between and, depending on the size of the vessels to be treated.
• Crioesclerosis: injecting the same sclerosant, conveniently prepared at temperatures below -30 ° C; for this reason a cold effect is associated, and requires a lower dose of the product
• Foam sclerosis: injecting emulsion sclerosants by physicochemical manipulation. An excellent contact is achieved, between the molecules of the sclerosant and the vascular walls, through displacement (and not by dilution) of the blood in the vein. It has the same indications, contraindications and side effects as the conventional chemical sclerosis.
• Electroesclerosis: using streams of different characteristics in order to achieve Electrocoagulation, but of very low intensity. Their results are still subject to controversy.
• Photosclerosis: using very special light energies (laser or pulsed light) to achieve coagulation and a vascular walls collapse. It still cannot act on of the vessels to be treated, it is therefore usual to finalize the treatment performing various sessions of conventional chemical sclerosis (injecting sclerosing solution).
Regarding the proposed treatment it is important to note, that before the injection, the area should be thoroughly disinfected using a local antiseptic. Each session lasts 15 to 30 minutes. A cream is applied to the treated area after each session, and a compression must be performed on the same during the first 48 hours. This is achieved by placing special stockings, which the patient must bring to each new session. Depending on the duration of the process and the procedure chosen, the treatment is resolved in one or more sessions; in the latter case, which is the most common, generally a session per week is performed switching leg, up until completing the treatment.
The area should not be re-treated within 15 days.